Administration of vitamins E and C reduced the immune activation of monocytes and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators during TS exposure. Chronic TS induced a marked increase in the medium content of IL-1b and TNF-α (Panel A), which were partially offset by the administration of antioxidant vitamins E and C. The medium content (Panel B) and activity (Panel C) of MMP-2 and-9 was also substantially increased by TS exposure. However, this was partially counteracted by vitamin E pre-treatment (alone) and vitamin E in combination with vitamin C. Vitamin C alone was only marginally effective. All the described experiments were performed in quadruplicates (n = 4). The asterisk "*" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus control. Multiple asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus other treatments. The plus sign "+" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus the control as well as all the other treatments.
Hossain et al. BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:92 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-92