Antioxidant vitamins administration reduced TS-dependent the pro-inflammatory activation of BBB endothelial cells. Chronic exposure of confluent cultures of HBMEC to TS levels equivalent to 20 cigarettes/day increased the number of HBMEC cells expressing of endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectine, P-selectine and VCAM-1. However, the pro-inflammatory effect of TS was partially counteracted by pre-treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C and E (Panel A), which as expected reduced the overall release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α (Panel B). MMP-2 release and activity were also significantly augmented by TS exposure (Panel C). MMP-2 release and activation following TS exposure were most effectively prevented by vitamin C and E co-administration. All the described experiments were performed in quadruplicates (n = 4). The asterisk "*" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus control. Multiple asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus other treatments. The plus sign "+" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus the control as well as all the other treatments.
Hossain et al. BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:92 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-92