Pattern of practice effects in cognitive domains over time. Data of all single tests (always expressed as % individual baseline of the respective test), representing one particular cognitive domain, were combined to yield respective super-ordinate cognitive mean curves. In almost all cognitive domains, changes in total test scores over time exhibit a similar practice pattern: significant improvement during the high-frequency testing phase and stabilization of performance during the low-frequency testing phase. Most pronounced score increases are seen in executive functions as well as in learning and memory, whereas changes in visuospatial performance fail to reach significance. Significance refers to a main effect of time determined with ANOVA for repeated measures, including all testing time-points from baseline to month 3, or from month 3 to month 12, respectively. Mean ± SEM given. ***p < 0.001; *p < 0.05; n.s., not significant.
Bartels et al. BMC Neuroscience 2010 11:118 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-118