Change in brain activity through virtual reality-based brain-machine communication in a chronic tetraplegic subject with muscular dystrophy
1 School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan
2 Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan
3 Keio University Tsukigase Rehabilitation Center, Shizuoka, Japan
4 Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
BMC Neuroscience 2010, 11:117 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-11-117Published: 16 September 2010
For severely paralyzed people, a brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a way of re-establishing communication. Although subjects with muscular dystrophy (MD) appear to be potential BCI users, the actual long-term effects of BCI use on brain activities in MD subjects have yet to be clarified. To investigate these effects, we followed BCI use by a chronic tetraplegic subject with MD over 5 months. The topographic changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG) after long-term use of the virtual reality (VR)-based BCI were also assessed. Our originally developed BCI system was used to classify an EEG recorded over the sensorimotor cortex in real time and estimate the user's motor intention (MI) in 3 different limb movements: feet, left hand, and right hand. An avatar in the internet-based VR was controlled in accordance with the results of the EEG classification by the BCI. The subject was trained to control his avatar via the BCI by strolling in the VR for 1 hour a day and then continued the same training twice a month at his home.
After the training, the error rate of the EEG classification decreased from 40% to 28%. The subject successfully walked around in the VR using only his MI and chatted with other users through a voice-chat function embedded in the internet-based VR. With this improvement in BCI control, event-related desynchronization (ERD) following MI was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) for feet MI (from -29% to -55%), left-hand MI (from -23% to -42%), and right-hand MI (from -22% to -51%).
These results show that our subject with severe MD was able to learn to control his EEG signal and communicate with other users through use of VR navigation and suggest that an internet-based VR has the potential to provide paralyzed people with the opportunity for easy communication.