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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Imaging cytoplasmic cAMP in mouse brainstem neurons

SL Mironov1*, E Skorova1, G Taschenberger2, N Hartelt1, VO Nikolaev3, MJ Lohse3 and S Kügler2

Author Affiliations

1 DFG-Center of Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, Humboldtallee 23, Georg-August-University, 37073 Göttingen, Germany

2 University Medical Center Göttingen, Department of Neurology, Waldweg 33, 37073 Göttingen, Germany

3 Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany

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BMC Neuroscience 2009, 10:29  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-10-29

Published: 27 March 2009

Abstract

Background

cAMP is an ubiquitous second messenger mediating various neuronal functions, often as a consequence of increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. While imaging of calcium is commonly used in neuroscience applications, probing for cAMP levels has not yet been performed in living vertebrate neuronal tissue before.

Results

Using a strictly neuron-restricted promoter we virally transduced neurons in the organotypic brainstem slices which contained pre-Bötzinger complex, constituting the rhythm-generating part of the respiratory network. Fluorescent cAMP sensor Epac1-camps was expressed both in neuronal cell bodies and neurites, allowing us to measure intracellular distribution of cAMP, its absolute levels and time-dependent changes in response to physiological stimuli. We recorded [cAMP]i changes in the micromolar range after modulation of adenylate cyclase, inhibition of phosphodiesterase and activation of G-protein-coupled metabotropic receptors. [cAMP]i levels increased after membrane depolarisation and release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The effects developed slowly and reached their maximum after transient [Ca2+]i elevations subsided. Ca2+-dependent [cAMP]i transients were suppressed after blockade of adenylate cyclase with 0.1 mM adenylate cyclase inhibitor 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine and potentiated after inhibiting phosphodiesterase with isobutylmethylxanthine and rolipram. During paired stimulations, the second depolarisation and Ca2+ release evoked bigger cAMP responses. These effects were abolished after inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 pointing to the important role of phosphorylation of calcium channels in the potentiation of [cAMP]i transients.

Conclusion

We constructed and characterized a neuron-specific cAMP probe based on Epac1-camps. Using viral gene transfer we showed its efficient expression in organotypic brainstem preparations. Strong fluorescence, resistance to photobleaching and possibility of direct estimation of [cAMP] levels using dual wavelength measurements make the probe useful in studies of neurons and the mechanisms of their plasticity. Epac1-camps was applied to examine the crosstalk between Ca2+ and cAMP signalling and revealed a synergism of actions of these two second messengers.