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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption

Myoung-Eun Han12, Hak-Jin Kim3, Young-Suk Lee1, Dong-Hyun Kim4, Joo-Taek Choi1, Chul-Sik Pan1, Sik Yoon12, Sun-Yong Baek1, Bong-Seon Kim1, Jae-Bong Kim1 and Sae-Ock Oh12*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea

2 Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea

3 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea

4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea

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BMC Neuroscience 2009, 10:110  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-10-110

Published: 3 September 2009

Abstract

Background

Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psycho-stimulant in the world. The effects of caffeine on the body have been extensively studied; however, its effect on the structure of the brain has not been investigated to date.

Results

In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats.

Conclusion

The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.