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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Potassium ferrate [Fe(VI)] does not mediate self-sterilization of a surrogate mars soil

Ronald L Crawford12*, Andrzej Paszczynski12 and Lisa Allenbach1

Author affiliations

1 Environmental Research Institute, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83.844-1052, USA

2 Department of Microbiology, Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1052, USA

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Citation and License

BMC Microbiology 2003, 3:4  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-3-4

Published: 6 March 2003

Abstract

Background

Martian soil is thought to be enriched with strong oxidants such as peroxides and/or iron in high oxidation states that might destroy biological materials. There is also a high flux of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of Mars. Thus, Mars may be inhospitable to life as we know it on Earth. We examined the hypothesis that if the soil of Mars contains ferrates [Fe(VI)], the strongest of the proposed oxidizing species, and also is exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation, it will be self-sterilizing.

Results

Under ambient conditions (25°C, oxygen and water present) K2FeO4 mixed into sand mineralized some reactive organic molecules to CO2, while less reactive compounds were not degraded. Dried endospores of Bacillus subtilis incubated in a Mars surrogate soil comprised of dry silica sand containing 20% by weight K2FeO4 and under conditions similar to those now on Mars (extreme desiccation, cold, and a CO2-dominated atmosphere) were resistant to killing by the ferrate-enriched sand. Similar results were observed with permanganate. Spores in oxidant-enriched sand exposed to high fluxes of UV light were protected from the sporocidal activity of the radiation below about 5 mm depths.

Conclusion

Based on our data and previously published descriptions of ancient but dormant life forms on Earth, we suggest that if entities resembling bacterial endospores were produced at some point by life forms on Mars, they might still be present and viable, given appropriate germination conditions. Endospores delivered to Mars on spacecraft would possibly survive and potentially compromise life detection experiments.