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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

Laxman Ghimire1*, Dinesh Kumar Singh2, Hom Bahadur Basnet3, Rebanta Kumar Bhattarai3, Santosh Dhakal4 and Bishwas Sharma5

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur Campus, Nepal; and Manager at Dairy Value Chain-Development Project, Dang, Nepal

2 Department of Pathology and Clinics (HOD), Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur Campus, Chitwan, Nepal

3 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology (HOD), Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur Campus, Chitwan, Nepal

4 The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA

5 Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal

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BMC Microbiology 2014, 14:85  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-85

Published: 5 April 2014



Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal.


We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the resistivity pattern among different species of Campylobacters. The association between prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, prevalence rate was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with chilling and contamination of intestinal content with carcass.


The pork meat of Chitwan is highly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves from antibiotic resistant campylobacters. The veterinary practitioners should adopt prudent use of antibiotics in pigs.

Campylobacter; Prevalence; Antibiotic resistance; Risk factors; Nepal