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Open Access Research article

The CJIE1 prophage of Campylobacter jejuni affects protein expression in growth media with and without bile salts

Clifford G Clark1*, Patrick M Chong2, Stuart J McCorrister2, Philippe Simon34, Matthew Walker1, David M Lee25, Kimberly Nguy1, Keding Cheng2, Matthew W Gilmour1 and Garrett R Westmacott2

Author Affiliations

1 Enterics Research Section, Bacteriology and Enterics Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada

2 Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics Core Facility, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada

3 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Room 543 – 745 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3J9, Canada

4 Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada

5 Current address: Faculty of Pharmacy, Apotex Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0T5, Canada

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BMC Microbiology 2014, 14:70  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-70

Published: 19 March 2014

Abstract

Background

The presence of Campylobacter jejuni temperate bacteriophages has increasingly been associated with specific biological effects. It has recently been demonstrated that the presence of the prophage CJIE1 is associated with increased adherence and invasion of C. jejuni isolates in cell culture assays.

Results

Quantitative comparative proteomics experiments were undertaken using three closely related isolates with CJIE1 and one isolate without CJIE1 to determine whether there was a corresponding difference in protein expression levels. Initial experiments indicated that about 2% of the total proteins characterized were expressed at different levels in isolates with or without the prophage. Some of these proteins regulated by the presence of CJIE1 were associated with virulence or regulatory functions. Additional experiments were conducted using C. jejuni isolates with and without CJIE1 grown on four different media: Mueller Hinton (MH) media containing blood; MH media containing 0.1% sodium deoxycholate, which is thought to result in increased expression of virulence proteins; MH media containing 2.5% Oxgall; and MHwithout additives. These experiments provided further evidence that CJIE1 affected protein expression, including virulence-associated proteins. They also demonstrated a general bile response involving a majority of the proteome and clearly showed the induction of almost all proteins known to be involved with iron acquisition. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000798, PXD000799, PXD000800, and PXD000801.

Conclusion

The presence of the CJIE1 prophage was associated with differences in protein expression levels under different conditions. Further work is required to determine what genes are involved in causing this phenomenon.

Keywords:
Campylobacter jejuni; Prophage; Proteomics; iTRAQ; Bile response; Iron acquisition