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Open Access Research article

Mangotoxin production of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is regulated by MgoA

Víctor J Carrión134, Menno van der Voort3, Eva Arrebola2, José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero15, Antonio de Vicente1, Jos M Raaijmakers34 and Francisco M Cazorla1*

Author Affiliations

1 Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”-Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain

2 Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”-Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Estación Experimental La Mayora, Algarrobo-Costa, 29750 Málaga, Spain

3 Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 6708 PB The Netherlands

4 Department of Microbial Ecology, The Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands

5 BIOMERIT Research Centre, School of Microbiology, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland

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BMC Microbiology 2014, 14:46  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-46

Published: 21 February 2014

Abstract

Background

The antimetabolite mangotoxin is a key factor in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains which cause apical necrosis of mango trees. Previous studies showed that mangotoxin biosynthesis is governed by the mbo operon. Random mutagenesis led to the identification of two other gene clusters that affect mangotoxin biosynthesis. These are the gacS/gacA genes and mgo operon which harbors the four genes mgoBCAD.

Results

The current study shows that disruption of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene mgoA resulted in loss of mangotoxin production and reduced virulence on tomato leaves. Transcriptional analyses by qPCR and promoter reporter fusions revealed that mbo expression is regulated by both gacS/gacA and mgo genes. Also, expression of the mgo operon was shown to be regulated by gacS/gacA. Heterologous expression under the native promoter of the mbo operon resulted in mangotoxin production in non-producing P. syringae strains, but not in other Pseudomonas species. Also introduction of the mbo and mgo operons in nonproducing P. protegens Pf-5 did not confer mangotoxin production but did enhance transcription of the mbo promoter.

Conclusions

From the data obtained in this study, we conclude that both mbo and mgo operons are under the control of the gacS/gacA two-component system and that the MgoA product acts as a positive regulator of mangotoxin biosynthesis.

Keywords:
Antimetabolite toxin; mgo operon; GacS/GacA; Plant-microbe interaction