Table 1 |
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Study population characteristics and Lactobacillus detection by feeding method | ||||
Breastfed (n=43) | Standard formula (n=43) | MFGM formula (n=47) | p-value | |
Gender (boys/girls)^{1} | 18/25 | 23/20 | 25/22 | 0.216 |
Vaginal delivery (% yes)^{1} | 95.3 | 88.4 | 83.0 | 0.095 |
Weight (gram)^{2} | ||||
At birth | 3,610 (3,492-3,728) | 3,481 (3,332-3,630) | 3,552 (3,444-3,660) | 0.352 |
At 4 months of age | 6,742 (6,548-6,935) | 6,850 (6,575-7,126) | 6,859 (6,670-7,049) | 0.704 |
Length (cm)^{2} | ||||
At birth | 50.5 (50.0-51.1) | 50.3 (49.7-50.9) | 50.6 (50.0-51.1) | 0.739 |
At 4 months of age | 63.9 (63.3-64.5) | 63.7 (62.9-64.6) | 64.3 (63.7-64.9) | 0.522 |
CFU lactobacilli/mL of saliva (log_{10})^{3} | 1.22 (0.20)^{a,b} | 0.15 (0.19)^{a} | 0.28 (0.19)^{b} | <0.001 |
% (n) with lactobacilli cultured in saliva^{1} | ||||
Among all infants (n=127) | 34.1% (14)^{a,b} | 4.7% (2)^{a} | 9.3% (4)^{b} | <0.001 |
Among infants who never had antibiotics or probiotics (n=106) | 33.3% (10)^{a,b} | 5.6% (2)^{a} | 11.8% (4)^{b} | 0.006 |
Among vaginally delivered infants (n=118) | 35.9% (14)^{a,b} | 2.6% (1)^{a} | 8.3% (3)^{b} | <0.001 |
% (n) infants with salivary isolates of L. gasseri^{1} | 29.3% (12)^{a,b} | 2.4% (1)^{a} | 7.0% (3)^{b} | <0.001 |
L. gasseri by qPCR (pg/μL in mucosal swab samples)^{4} | 2.14 (0.74)^{a} | 0.31 (0.70)^{a} | 0.74 (0.68) | 0.097^{4} |
^{1} Differences in proportions between feeding group numbers were tested with Chi^{2} test. Shared superscript letters ^{(a and b)} indicate differences between groups when tested pairwise (p≤0.008).
^{2} Data are presented as mean (95% CI) and differences between group means were tested with ANOVA.
^{3} Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode and exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months using generalized linear modelling (p=0.012, one sided test). Shared superscript letters ^{(a and b)} indicate groups that differ significant when tested pairwise (p-value≤0.01). The p-value between the two formula groups was p=0.439.
^{4} Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode, exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months (yes/no) and amount of DNA using generalized linear modelling. Shared superscript letter ^{(a)} indicates the groups that differ significantly when tested pairwise (one sided). Table 1 shows p-value between groups (p=0.097). P-values for the breastfed versus the standard formula group was p=0.040 and breastfed versus MFGM formula group p=0.089, and between the two formula groups p=0.329. 6.75×10^{5}pg/mL correspond to 5.9×10^{7} CFU L. gasseri cells/mL. Employing number of bacteria/mL in the regression model leads to identical results.
Romani Vestman et al.
Romani Vestman et al. BMC Microbiology 2013 13:193 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-193