Table 1

Study population characteristics and Lactobacillus detection by feeding method
Breastfed (n=43) Standard formula (n=43) MFGM formula (n=47) p-value
Gender (boys/girls)1 18/25 23/20 25/22 0.216
Vaginal delivery (% yes)1 95.3 88.4 83.0 0.095
Weight (gram)2
 At birth 3,610 (3,492-3,728) 3,481 (3,332-3,630) 3,552 (3,444-3,660) 0.352
 At 4 months of age 6,742 (6,548-6,935) 6,850 (6,575-7,126) 6,859 (6,670-7,049) 0.704
Length (cm)2
 At birth 50.5 (50.0-51.1) 50.3 (49.7-50.9) 50.6 (50.0-51.1) 0.739
 At 4 months of age 63.9 (63.3-64.5) 63.7 (62.9-64.6) 64.3 (63.7-64.9) 0.522
CFU lactobacilli/mL of saliva (log10)3 1.22 (0.20)a,b 0.15 (0.19)a 0.28 (0.19)b <0.001
% (n) with lactobacilli cultured in saliva1
 Among all infants (n=127) 34.1% (14)a,b 4.7% (2)a 9.3% (4)b <0.001
 Among infants who never had antibiotics or probiotics (n=106) 33.3% (10)a,b 5.6% (2)a 11.8% (4)b 0.006
 Among vaginally delivered infants (n=118) 35.9% (14)a,b 2.6% (1)a 8.3% (3)b <0.001
% (n) infants with salivary isolates of L. gasseri1 29.3% (12)a,b 2.4% (1)a 7.0% (3)b <0.001
L. gasseri by qPCR (pg/μL in mucosal swab samples)4 2.14 (0.74)a 0.31 (0.70)a 0.74 (0.68) 0.0974

1 Differences in proportions between feeding group numbers were tested with Chi2 test. Shared superscript letters (a and b) indicate differences between groups when tested pairwise (p≤0.008).

2 Data are presented as mean (95% CI) and differences between group means were tested with ANOVA.

3 Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode and exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months using generalized linear modelling (p=0.012, one sided test). Shared superscript letters (a and b) indicate groups that differ significant when tested pairwise (p-value≤0.01). The p-value between the two formula groups was p=0.439.

4 Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode, exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months (yes/no) and amount of DNA using generalized linear modelling. Shared superscript letter (a) indicates the groups that differ significantly when tested pairwise (one sided). Table 1 shows p-value between groups (p=0.097). P-values for the breastfed versus the standard formula group was p=0.040 and breastfed versus MFGM formula group p=0.089, and between the two formula groups p=0.329. 6.75×105pg/mL correspond to 5.9×107 CFU L. gasseri cells/mL. Employing number of bacteria/mL in the regression model leads to identical results.

Romani Vestman et al.

Romani Vestman et al. BMC Microbiology 2013 13:193   doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-193

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