|Study population characteristics and Lactobacillus detection by feeding method|
|Breastfed (n=43)||Standard formula (n=43)||MFGM formula (n=47)||p-value|
|Vaginal delivery (% yes)1||95.3||88.4||83.0||0.095|
|At birth||3,610 (3,492-3,728)||3,481 (3,332-3,630)||3,552 (3,444-3,660)||0.352|
|At 4 months of age||6,742 (6,548-6,935)||6,850 (6,575-7,126)||6,859 (6,670-7,049)||0.704|
|At birth||50.5 (50.0-51.1)||50.3 (49.7-50.9)||50.6 (50.0-51.1)||0.739|
|At 4 months of age||63.9 (63.3-64.5)||63.7 (62.9-64.6)||64.3 (63.7-64.9)||0.522|
|CFU lactobacilli/mL of saliva (log10)3||1.22 (0.20)a,b||0.15 (0.19)a||0.28 (0.19)b||<0.001|
|% (n) with lactobacilli cultured in saliva1|
|Among all infants (n=127)||34.1% (14)a,b||4.7% (2)a||9.3% (4)b||<0.001|
|Among infants who never had antibiotics or probiotics (n=106)||33.3% (10)a,b||5.6% (2)a||11.8% (4)b||0.006|
|Among vaginally delivered infants (n=118)||35.9% (14)a,b||2.6% (1)a||8.3% (3)b||<0.001|
|% (n) infants with salivary isolates of L. gasseri1||29.3% (12)a,b||2.4% (1)a||7.0% (3)b||<0.001|
|L. gasseri by qPCR (pg/μL in mucosal swab samples)4||2.14 (0.74)a||0.31 (0.70)a||0.74 (0.68)||0.0974|
1 Differences in proportions between feeding group numbers were tested with Chi2 test. Shared superscript letters (a and b) indicate differences between groups when tested pairwise (p≤0.008).
2 Data are presented as mean (95% CI) and differences between group means were tested with ANOVA.
3 Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode and exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months using generalized linear modelling (p=0.012, one sided test). Shared superscript letters (a and b) indicate groups that differ significant when tested pairwise (p-value≤0.01). The p-value between the two formula groups was p=0.439.
4 Data are presented as mean (SE). Means are adjusted for delivery mode, exposure to probiotic drops at 4 months (yes/no) and amount of DNA using generalized linear modelling. Shared superscript letter (a) indicates the groups that differ significantly when tested pairwise (one sided). Table 1 shows p-value between groups (p=0.097). P-values for the breastfed versus the standard formula group was p=0.040 and breastfed versus MFGM formula group p=0.089, and between the two formula groups p=0.329. 6.75×105pg/mL correspond to 5.9×107 CFU L. gasseri cells/mL. Employing number of bacteria/mL in the regression model leads to identical results.
Romani Vestman et al.
Romani Vestman et al. BMC Microbiology 2013 13:193 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-193