Antiadhesive activity of the biosurfactant pseudofactin II secreted by the Arctic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5
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BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:24 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-24Published: 23 February 2012
Pseudofactin II is a recently identified biosurfactant secreted by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5, the strain obtained from freshwater from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Pseudofactin II is a novel compound identified as cyclic lipopeptide with a palmitic acid connected to the terminal amino group of eighth amino acid in peptide moiety. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the last amino acid forms a lactone with the hydroxyl of Thr3.
Adhesion is the first stage of biofilm formation and the best moment for the action of antiadhesive and anti-biofilm compounds. Adsorption of biosurfactants to a surface e.g. glass, polystyrene, silicone modifies its hydrophobicity, interfering with the microbial adhesion and desorption processes. In this study the role and applications of pseudofactin II as a antiadhesive compound has been investigated from medicinal and therapeutic perspectives.
Pseudofactin II lowered the adhesion to three types of surfaces (glass, polystyrene and silicone) of bacterial strains of five species: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and two Candida albicans strains. Pretreatment of a polystyrene surface with 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II inhibited bacterial adhesion by 36-90% and that of C. albicans by 92-99%. The same concentration of pseudofactin II dislodged 26-70% of preexisting biofilms grown on previously untreated surfaces. Pseudofactin II also caused a marked inhibition of the initial adhesion of E. faecalis, E. coli, E. hirae and C. albicans strains to silicone urethral catheters. The highest concentration tested (0.5 mg/ml) caused a total growth inhibition of S. epidermidis, partial (18-37%) inhibition of other bacteria and 8-9% inhibition of C. albicans growth.
Pseudofactin II showed antiadhesive activity against several pathogenic microorganisms which are potential biofilm formers on catheters, implants and internal prostheses. Up to 99% prevention could be achieved by 0.5 mg/ml pseudofactin II. In addition, pseudofactin II dispersed preformed biofilms. Pseudofactin II can be used as a disinfectant or surface coating agent against microbial colonization of different surfaces, e.g. implants or urethral catheters.