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Open Access Research article

Metagenomic and geochemical characterization of pockmarked sediments overlaying the Troll petroleum reservoir in the North Sea

Othilde Elise Håvelsrud123, Thomas HA Haverkamp34, Tom Kristensen23, Kjetill S Jakobsen34 and Anne Gunn Rike1*

Author Affiliations

1 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Sognsveien 72, P.O. Box 3930, Ullevål Stadion N-0806, Oslo, Norway

2 Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Blindernveien 31, P.O. Box 1041, Blindern N-0316, Oslo, Norway

3 Microbial Evolution Research Group, MERG, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Blindernveien 31, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern N-0316, Oslo, Norway

4 Centre for Evolutionary and Ecological Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biology, University of Oslo, Blindernveien 31, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern N-0316, Oslo, Norway

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BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:203  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-203

Published: 11 September 2012

Abstract

Background

Pockmarks (depressions in the seabed) have been discovered throughout the world’s oceans and are often related to hydrocarbon seepage. Although high concentrations of pockmarks are present in the seabed overlaying the Troll oil and gas reservoir in the northern North Sea, geological surveys have not detected hydrocarbon seepage in this area at the present time. In this study we have used metagenomics to characterize the prokaryotic communities inhabiting the surface sediments in the Troll area in relation to geochemical parameters, particularly related to hydrocarbon presence. We also investigated the possibility of increased potential for methane oxidation related to the pockmarks. Five metagenomes from pockmarks and plain seabed sediments were sequenced by pyrosequencing (Roche/454) technology. In addition, two metagenomes from seabed sediments geologically unlikely to be influenced by hydrocarbon seepage (the Oslofjord) were included. The taxonomic distribution and metabolic potential of the metagenomes were analyzed by multivariate analysis and statistical comparisons to reveal variation within and between the two sampling areas.

Results

The main difference identified between the two sampling areas was an overabundance of predominantly autotrophic nitrifiers, especially Nitrosopumilus, and oligotrophic marine Gammaproteobacteria in the Troll metagenomes compared to the Oslofjord. Increased potential for degradation of hydrocarbons, especially aromatic hydrocarbons, was detected in two of the Troll samples: one pockmark sample and one from the plain seabed. Although presence of methanotrophic organisms was indicated in all samples, no overabundance in pockmark samples compared to the Oslofjord samples supports no, or only low level, methane seepage in the Troll pockmarks at the present time.

Conclusions

Given the relatively low content of total organic carbon and great depths of hydrocarbon containing sediments in the Troll area, it is possible that at least part of the carbon source available for the predominantly autotrophic nitrifiers thriving in this area originates from sequential prokaryotic degradation and oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. By turning CO2 back into organic carbon this subcommunity could play an important environmental role in these dark oligotrophic sediments. The oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate in this process could further increase the supply of terminal electron acceptors for hydrocarbon degradation.