Open Access Research article

Bacillus anthracis-derived edema toxin (ET) counter-regulates movement of neutrophils and macromolecules through the endothelial paracellular pathway

Chinh Nguyen1*, Chiguang Feng2, Min Zhan3, Alan S Cross2 and Simeon E Goldblum4

Author Affiliations

1 Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems, 3601 S 6th Ave, Mail Code 111-1, Building 2, 4th floor, Tucson AZ 85723, USA

2 Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore St, Health Science Facility 1, Rm 480, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

3 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 West Redwood St, Howard Hall, Rm 114A, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

4 Mucosal Biology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Health Science Facility 2, Room 303D, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA

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BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-2

Published: 9 January 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Figure S1. FSK and IBMX do not reproduce the ET effect on IL-8-driven TEM of PMNs at 0.5 h. (A) HMVEC-Ls were treated for 0.5 h with FSK (10 μM), IBMX (1 mM), or medium alone, and lysed. The lysates were processed for pCREB immunoblotting. IB, immunoblot, IB*, immunoblot after stripping. To control for protein loading and transfer, blots were stripped and reprobed for β-tubulin. (B) The pCREB signals in each blot described in (A) were quantified by densitometry and normalized to β-tubulin signal in the same lane in the same blot. (C) HMVEC-Ls cultured to confluence in assay chambers were treated for 0.5 h with medium, FSK, or IBMX. These same chambers were then inserted into wells of 24-well plates containing either medium or IL-8 (10 ng/mL), after which calcein-AM-labeled PMNs were added to the upper compartment of each chamber. After 2 h, the contents of each lower compartment were fluorometrically assayed. Each vertical bar represents mean (+/- SEM) TEM of PMNs (%). The n for each group is indicated in each bar. * indicates significantly increased compared to the simultaneous medium controls at p < 0.05. ** indicates significantly decreased compared to IL-8 alone at p < 0.05.

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