NF-κB augmentation by two different L. rhamnosus strains. Bladder cells were co-stimulated with heat-killed E. coli and viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 or L. rhamnosus GG for 24 h (n = 4). An asterisk denotes significant difference between the two groups (p-values < 0.05).
Karlsson et al. BMC Microbiology 2012 12:15 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-15