NF-κB activation and expression of cytokines in bladder cells after stimulation with L. rhamnosus GR-1. Viable (V) or heat-killed (HK) L. rhamnosus GR-1 at a concentration of 2 × 107 cfu/ml were used to challenge bladder cells for 24 h. (A) Relative NF-κB activation (n = 4) and (B) TNF, IL-6, and CXCL8 levels (n = 3) were measured using luciferase assay and ELISA, respectively. Error bars represent the standard errors of the means. Bars labeled with an asterisk significantly differ from the control (p-values < 0.05).
Karlsson et al. BMC Microbiology 2012 12:15 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-15