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Open Access Research article

A novel bacteriophage KSL-1 of 2-Keto-gluconic acid producer Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005: isolation, characterization and its remedial action

Wen-Jing Sun12*, Chang-Feng Liu1, Lin Yu1, Feng-Jie Cui12*, Qiang Zhou2, Si-Lian Yu2 and Lei Sun3

Author Affiliations

1 School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd., Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province, 212013, People's Republic of China

2 Parchn Sodium Isovitamin C Co. Ltd, Xingangshan Country, Dexing City, Jiangxi Province, 334221, People's Republic of China

3 Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University, No.1 Weigang, Wuxi, 214122, People's Republic of China

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BMC Microbiology 2012, 12:127  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-127

Published: 29 June 2012



Bacteriophages have the destructive damage on the industrial bioprocess. 2-Keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) producing bacteria had also been attacked and lysed by bacteriophages which lowered the glucose consumption and 2KGA yield and even stopped the fermentation process. In this study, we presented the characteristics of a novel virulent bacteriophage specifically infecting Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005 and proposed an efficient remedial action for this phage infection to reduce the production loss.


The phage KSL-1 of Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005 was isolated from abnormal 2KGA fermentation broth. It belonged to the Siphoviridae family with a hexagonal head diameter of about 99 nm and a non-contractile tail of about 103 nm × 39 nm. The genome size of phage KSL-1 was estimated to be approximately 53 kbp. Its optimal MOI to infect P. fluorescens K1005 was about 0.001. One-step growth curve gave its latent and burst periods of 90 min and 75 min with a burst size of 52 phage particles per infected cell. This phage was stable with a pH range of 7.0–10.0, and sensitive to thermal treatment. Finally, a simple remedial action was proposed by feeding fresh seed culture. Compared with the infected 2KGA fermentation, the remedial experiments restored 2KGA fermentation performance by increasing the produced 2KGA concentration to 159.89 g/L and shortening the total fermentation time of 80 h with the productivity and yield of 2.0 g/L.h and 0.89 g/g. The obtained data proved that this method was effective to combat the phage infections problems during the 2KGA fermentation.


The phage KSL-1 was a novel bacteriophage specifically infecting Pseudomonas fluorescens K1005. The remedial action of feeding fresh seed culture to the infected broth was an easily-operating and effective method to maintain a high 2KGA yield and avoid the draft of infected broth.