Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Genotyping analysis of Helicobacter pylori using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis in five regions of China and Japan

Chunliang Guo123, Yaling Liao1, Yan Li4, Jun Duan5, Ying Guo1, Yuqian Wu5, Yujun Cui6, Hongwu Sun1, Jinyong Zhang1, Bing Chen2*, Quanming Zou7* and Gang Guo1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medical Laboratory, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China

2 Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China

3 Department of clinical laboratory, 155 Central Hospital of PLA, Kaifeng, 475000, China

4 Medical Research Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China

5 Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China

6 Laboratory of Analytical Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China

7 National Engineer Research Center for Immunization Products, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China

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BMC Microbiology 2011, 11:197  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-197

Published: 3 September 2011



H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is the major causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. Its long term colonization of the stomach caused different clinical outcomes, which may relate to the high degree of genetic variation of H. pylori. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-locus of variable number of tandem repeat analysis) method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori from different districts and ethnic groups of China.


MLVA of 12 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 30 candidates were performed on a collection of 202 strains of H. pylori which originated from five regions of China and Japan. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MLVA profiles. 12 VNTR loci presented with high various polymorphisms, and the results demonstrated very close relationships between genotypes and ethnic groups.


This study used MLVA methodology providing a new perspective on the ethnic groups and distribution characteristics of H. pylori.