Table 1

Demographic characteristics of Singapore (n = 42) and Indonesia (n = 32) children

Indonesia

(n = 32)

Singapore

(n = 42)

p value


Gender (%)

Male

22 (68.75)

24 (57.1)

0.308

Female

10 (31.25)

18 (42.9)

Mode of Delivery (%)

Vaginal delivery

16 (50)

32 (76.2)

0.019*

Lower Segment caesarean section

16 (50)

10 (23.8)

Feeding history from birth to month 6 (%)

Total breastfeeding

6 (18.75)

0 (0)

0.005*

Breastfeeding and formula feeding

26 (81.25)

36 (85.71)

0.606

Total formula feeding

0(0)

6 (14.29)

0.033*

Eczema (%)

Yes

6 (18.75)

13 (31)

0.234

Antibiotics (%)

Prenatal (Yes)

5 (15.6)

0 (0)

0.013*

Postnatal (Yes)

8(25.0)

16 (38.1)

0.233

Age at weaning (months)

Mean (SD)

6.73 (1.892)

5.63 (0.773)

0.007*

Median (Range)

6 (3-11)

6 (4-7)

Number of siblings

Mean (SD)

0.78 (1.039)

1.24 (1.34)

0.113

Median (Range)

0 (0-4)

1 (0-6)


* Statistically significant differences are indicated (p < 0.05)

Yap et al. BMC Microbiology 2011 11:193   doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-193

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