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Open Access Research article

Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027) is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

Osamu Kato1, Jung-Won Youn2, K Corinna Stansen3, Daisuke Matsui1, Tadao Oikawa1 and Volker F Wendisch2*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-Cho, Suita, Osaka-Fu 564-8680, Japan

2 Chair of Genetics of Prokaryotes, Department of Biology & CeBiTec, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany

3 Institute of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Westfalian Wilhelms University Muenster, Muenster, Germany

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Citation and License

BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:321  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-321

Published: 15 December 2010

Abstract

Background

Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032.

Results

Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld) by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer.

Conclusions

Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.