Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Microbiology and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard

Trine Glad12*, Pål Bernhardsen12, Kaare M Nielsen1, Lorenzo Brusetti3, Magnus Andersen4, Jon Aars4 and Monica A Sundset2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pharmacy, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway

2 Department of Arctic Biology and Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway

3 Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen/Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy

4 Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:10  doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-10

Published: 14 January 2010



Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006.


A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic β-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears.


The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.