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Open Access Highly Accessed Methodology article

CyProQuant-PCR: a real time RT-PCR technique for profiling human cytokines, based on external RNA standards, readily automatable for clinical use

Philippe Boeuf1, Inès Vigan-Womas1, Delphine Jublot1, Séverine Loizon1, Jean-Christophe Barale2, Bartholomew Dicky Akanmori3, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon1 and Charlotte Behr1*

Author Affiliations

1 Unité d'Immunologie Moléculaire des Parasites, URA CNRS 2581, Département de Parasitologie et de Médecine Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

2 Unité d'Immunophysiopathologie Infectieuse, URA CNRS 1961, Département d'Immunologie, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

3 Immunology Unit, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, PO box LG 581, Legon, Ghana

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BMC Immunology 2005, 6:5  doi:10.1186/1471-2172-6-5

Published: 4 March 2005

Abstract

Background

Real-time PCR is becoming a common tool for detecting and quantifying expression profiling of selected genes. Cytokines mRNA quantification is widely used in immunological research to dissect the early steps of immune responses or pathophysiological pathways. It is also growing to be of clinical relevancy to immuno-monitoring and evaluation of the disease status of patients. The techniques currently used for "absolute quantification" of cytokine mRNA are based on a DNA standard curve and do not take into account the critical impact of RT efficiency.

Results

To overcome this pitfall, we designed a strategy using external RNA as standard in the RT-PCR. Use of synthetic RNA standards, by comparison with the corresponding DNA standard, showed significant variations in the yield of retro-transcription depending the target amplified and the experiment. We then developed primers to be used under one single experimental condition for the specific amplification of human IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ, MIF, TGF-β1 and TNF-α mRNA. We showed that the beta-2 microglobulin (β2-MG) gene was suitable for data normalisation since the level of β2-MG transcripts in naïve PBMC varied less than 5 times between individuals and was not affected by LPS or PHA stimulation. The technique, we named CyProQuant-PCR (Cytokine Profiling Quantitative PCR) was validated using a kinetic measurement of cytokine transcripts under in vitro stimulation of human PBMC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan (SAC). Results obtained show that CyProQuant-PCR is powerful enough to precociously detect slight cytokine induction. Finally, having demonstrated the reproducibility of the method, it was applied to malaria patients and asymptomatic controls for the quantification of TGF-β1 transcripts and showed an increased capacity of cells from malaria patients to accumulate TGF-β1 mRNA in response to LPS.

Conclusion

The real-time RT-PCR technique based on a RNA standard curve, CyProQuant-PCR, outlined here, allows for a genuine absolute quantification and a simultaneous analysis of a large panel of human cytokine mRNA. It represents a potent and attractive tool for immunomonitoring, lending itself readily to automation and with a high throughput. This opens the possibility of an easy and reliable cytokine profiling for clinical applications.