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Open Access Research article

Streptococcus sanguinis-induced cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase-1 release from platelets

Fabrice Cognasse12*, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse2, Adrien Chabert2, Elke Jackson34, Charles-Antoine Arthaud1, Olivier Garraud12 and Archie McNicol34

Author Affiliations

1 Etablissement Français du Sang (EFS) Auvergne-Loire, Saint-Etienne, France

2 GIMAP-EA3064, Université de Lyon, Saint-Étienne 42023, France

3 Oral Biology and Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

4 International Centre for Oral Systemic Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

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BMC Immunology 2014, 15:15  doi:10.1186/1471-2172-15-15

Published: 22 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Streptococcus sanguinis (S.sanguinis), a predominant bacterium in the human oral cavity, has been widely associated with the development of infective endocarditis. Platelets play both a haemostatic function and can influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous studies have shown that S.sanguinis can interact with, and activate, platelets.

Results

The aim of this study was to determine whether S.sanguinis stimulates the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2 and 9 and the pro-inflammatory mediators SDF-1, VEGF and sCD40L, from platelets and to subsequently pharmacologically address the release mechanism (s). S.sanguinis stimulated the release of MMP-1, SDF-1, VEGF and sCD40L from platelets and inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and antagonists of the αIIbβ3 integrin and glycoprotein Ib, each inhibited the secretion of all factors.

Conclusions

Therefore the release of MMP-1, SDF-1, VEGF and sCD40L occurs late in the platelet response to S.sanguinis and highlights the complex intracellular signalling pathways stimulated in response to S.sanguinis which lead to haemostasis, MMP and pro-inflammatory mediator secretion.

Keywords:
Platelets; Cytokines; Signalling; Oral cavity; Inflammation; Streptococcus sanguinis