mRNA expression of both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypic markers is intrinsically elevated in GM-CSF knockout BAL cells compared to wild-type mice. Elevated mRNA expression of M1 markers: (A) iNOS; (B) CCL5, and (C) IL-6. Elevated mRNA expression of M2 markers: (D) IL-10, and (E) CCL2.
Dalrymple et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:41 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-41