Activin A levels are increased by IFNγ and reduced by IFNγ blockade. (A) IFNγ upregulates activin A mRNA in wild-type alveolar macrophages cultured for 24 hours with IFNγ (100 U/ml) [n = 4]. (B) Antibody to IFNγ represses intrinsic activin A synthesis in GM-CSF knockout alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF knockout alveolar macrophages were cultured with irrelevant IgG or anti-IFNγ for 24 hours and activin A was determined in conditioned media by ELISA (n = 2). (C) BAL cells from GM-CSF knockout mice receiving intratracheal instillation of lentivirus-PPARγ or control lentivirus-EGFP were analyzed for IFNγ and activin A mRNA expression at 10 days post-transduction (n = 5).
Dalrymple et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:41 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-41