Activin A and IFNγ are intrinsically elevated in GM-CSF knockout lung compared to wild-type mice. Expression of mRNA is shown as a relative fold change as calculated from qPCR. (A) Activin A mRNA expression of BAL cells. (B) Levels of activin A protein in BAL fluids were quantified by ELISA. (C) IFNγ mRNA expression of BAL cells. (D) Cytospin preparations of wild-type C57Bl/6 and GM-CSF knockout BAL cells were stained with anti-IFNγ (green) and DAPI (blue), a nuclear counterstain. Elevated IFNγ protein can be seen in GM-CSF knockout BAL cells (right) compared to wild-type (left).
Dalrymple et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:41 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-41