Effect of lactobacilli on systemic and respiratory immunity. Effect of viable (Lr05) or heat-killed (HkLr05) Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and viable (Lr06) or heat-killed (HkLr06) L. rhamnosus CRL1506 nasal administration on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 concentrations in broncho-alveolar lavages (A) and serum (B). Lr05, Lr06, HkLr05 or HkLr06 were nasally administered to different groups of mice for 2 consecutive days at a dose of 108 cells/mouse/day and the levels of BAL and serum cytokines were studied on day 3. The results represent data from three independent experiments. Different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05).
Tomosada et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:40 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-40