Cytokines in cell culture supernatants. PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with α-CD3 for 5 days and supernatants were taken and examined by the luminex method for 15 cytokines. Cytokine levels of 17 patients at baseline (non hatched bars) and post-treatment (hatched bars). White bars represent ACPA-positive patients (n=10), whereas grey bars represent ACPA-negative patients (n=7).
Pieper et al. BMC Immunology 2013 14:34 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-34