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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Limiting prolonged inflammation during proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with camel undenatured whey protein

Hossam Ebaid12*, Osama M Ahmed3, Ayman M Mahmoud3 and Rasha R Ahmed4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minya, Egypt

3 Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

4 Cell Biology and Histology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

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BMC Immunology 2013, 14:31  doi:10.1186/1471-2172-14-31

Published: 25 July 2013

Abstract

Background

Impaired diabetic wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to normally regulate the ROS and inflammatory cytokines during the inflammatory phase (first day) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to assess the effect of WP on metabolic status, the inflammation and anti-inflammation response, oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system during different phases of the wound healing process in diabetic rats. WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight, dissolved in 1% CMC, was orally administered daily to wounded normal (non-diabetic) and STZ-induced diabetic rats for 8 days starting from the 1st day after wounding.

Results

The data revealed that WP enhanced wound closure and was associated with an increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rats and an alleviation of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic states in diabetic animals. The increase in insulin levels as a result of WP administration is associated with a marked multiplication of β-cells in the core of islets of Langerhans. WP induced a reduction in serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels and an increase in IL-10 levels, especially on the 4th day after wounding and treatment. WP also suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation and stimulated the antioxidant defense system by increasing the level of glutathione and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in wounded diabetic rats.

Conclusions

WP was observed to enhance wound closure by improving the diabetic condition, limiting prolonged inflammation, suppressing oxidative stress and elevating the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats.

Keywords:
Whey proteins; Prolonged inflammation; Cytokines; Wound healing; Diabetic rats