MHC class IIlow/hi TAM subsets modulate T cell proliferation through IL-10/TGF-β production and invasion and migration of tumor cells through MMP-9 and VEGF production. (A) Suppression or promotion of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation by different TAM subsets (n = 3). (B) The suppression of T cell polyclonal activation was reversed by neutralizing IL-10 and TGF-β (n = 3). (C) IL-10 and TGF-β levels after co-culture of TAMs and splenocytes (n = 3). (D) RT-PCR analysis of mmp-9 and vegf expression. (E) Western blot analysis of MMP-9 and VEGF expression. (F) Representative images showing tumor cell migration taken 24 h after co-culture of Hepa1-6 cells and TAMs (× 400 magnification). Images shown are representative of three independent experiments. (G) Number of migrated tumor cells. The bars represent the mean ± SD; **p < 0.01 (unpaired Student's t-test).
Wang et al. BMC Immunology 2011 12:43 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-12-43