Immunohistochemical analyses of immunosuppressive molecules after Cl2MDP-liposome treatment. (A) Expression of IL-10, TGF-β, VEGF, and MMP-9 was evaluated by immunostaining. Original magnification: × 400. Insets: representative cells expressing VEGF and MMP-9. Arrowheads show positively-stained cells. (B) Examination of CD31 expression in tumors by immunostaining. (C) CD31-positive microvessel density was evaluated by counting at × 400 magnification (a 0.17 mm2 field). Data are expressed as mean vessel number per field ± SD (10 fields per tumor, 5 tumors per group). ***p < 0.001 (unpaired Student's t-test).
Wang et al. BMC Immunology 2011 12:43 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-12-43