Effect of IL-33 on human macrophages previously exposed to either M1 or M2 conditions. M1- (i.e. CCR7 and CCL3) and M2- (i.e. CCL18 and mannose receptor) associated markers in human macrophages previously exposed to M1 (A) or M2 (B) conditions for 24 h, which were secondarily challenged with IL-33 alone (10 ng/ml), IL-33 + M1 or M2 polarizing mediators, or M1 or M2 polarizing mediators for an additional 24 h. Results are expressed as fold increase in transcript levels compared with levels of these transcripts in human macrophages exposed to media alone (i.e. control condition). Data shown are mean ± SEM, and these data are representative of three separate experiments with 3 donor macrophage lines. ** P ≤ 0.01 compared with transcript levels in appropriate control macrophages.
Joshi et al. BMC Immunology 2010 11:52 doi:10.1186/1471-2172-11-52