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Open Access Research article

Re-annotation of the physical map of Glycine max for polyploid-like regions by BAC end sequence driven whole genome shotgun read assembly

Navinder Saini13, Jeffry Shultz12 and David A Lightfoot1*

Author Affiliations

1 Dept. of Plant, Soil and Agricultural Systems: Genomics and Biotechnology Core Facility: Center for Excellence; the Illinois Soybean Center: Southern Illinois University, Carbondale IL, 62901, USA

2 School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, 120 Carson Taylor Hall, Ruston, LA 71272, USA

3 Biotechnology Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, India

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BMC Genomics 2008, 9:323  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-323

Published: 7 July 2008



Many of the world's most important food crops have either polyploid genomes or homeologous regions derived from segmental shuffling following polyploid formation. The soybean (Glycine max) genome has been shown to be composed of approximately four thousand short interspersed homeologous regions with 1, 2 or 4 copies per haploid genome by RFLP analysis, microsatellite anchors to BACs and by contigs formed from BAC fingerprints. Despite these similar regions,, the genome has been sequenced by whole genome shotgun sequence (WGS). Here the aim was to use BAC end sequences (BES) derived from three minimum tile paths (MTP) to examine the extent and homogeneity of polyploid-like regions within contigs and the extent of correlation between the polyploid-like regions inferred from fingerprinting and the polyploid-like sequences inferred from WGS matches.


Results show that when sequence divergence was 1–10%, the copy number of homeologous regions could be identified from sequence variation in WGS reads overlapping BES. Homeolog sequence variants (HSVs) were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 89%) and single nucleotide indels (SNIs 10%). Larger indels were rare but present (1%). Simulations that had predicted fingerprints of homeologous regions could be separated when divergence exceeded 2% were shown to be false. We show that a 5–10% sequence divergence is necessary to separate homeologs by fingerprinting. BES compared to WGS traces showed polyploid-like regions with less than 1% sequence divergence exist at 2.3% of the locations assayed.


The use of HSVs like SNPs and SNIs to characterize BACs wil improve contig building methods. The implications for bioinformatic and functional annotation of polyploid and paleopolyploid genomes show that a combined approach of BAC fingerprint based physical maps, WGS sequence and HSV-based partitioning of BAC clones from homeologous regions to separate contigs will allow reliable de-convolution and positioning of sequence scaffolds (see BES_scaffolds section of SoyGD). This approach will assist genome annotation for paleopolyploid and true polyploid genomes such as soybean and many important cereal and fruit crops.