Comprehensive genetic and epigenetic analysis of sporadic meningioma for macro-mutations on 22q and micro-mutations within the NF2 locus
1 Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
3 University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd. Ave. S., Kaul 420, Birmingham, AL 35294-0024, USA
BMC Genomics 2007, 8:16 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-16Published: 12 January 2007
Meningiomas are the most common intracranial neoplasias, representing a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumors. The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor is the only gene known to be frequently involved in early development of meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify genetic and/or epigenetic factors contributing to the development of these tumors. A large set of sporadic meningiomas were analyzed for presence of 22q macro-mutations using array-CGH in order to identify tumors carrying gene dosage aberrations not encompassing NF2. The NF2 locus was also comprehensively studied for point mutations within coding and conserved non-coding sequences. Furthermore, CpG methylation within the NF2 promoter region was thoroughly analyzed.
Monosomy 22 was the predominant finding, detected in 47% of meningiomas. Thirteen percent of the tumors contained interstitial/terminal deletions and gains, present singly or in combinations. We defined at least two minimal overlapping regions outside the NF2 locus that are small enough (~550 kb and ~250 kb) to allow analysis of a limited number of candidate genes. Bialleinactivationo the NF2 gne was detected in 36% of meningiomas. Among the monosomy 22 cases, no additional NF2 mutations could be identified in 35% (17 out of 49) of tumors. Furthermore, the majority of tumors (9 out of 12) with interstitial/terminal deletions did not have any detectable NF2 mutations. Methylation within the NF2 promoter region was only identified at a single CpG site in one tumor sample.
We confirmed previous findings of pronounced differences in mutation frequency between different histopathological subtypes. There is a higher frequency of biallelic NF2 inactivation in fibroblastic (52%) compared to meningothelial (18%) tumors. The presence of macro-mutations on 22q also shows marked differences between fibroblastic (86%) and meningothelial (39%) subtypes. Thus, inactivation of NF2, often combined with the presence of macro-mutation on 22q, is likely not as important for the development of the meningothelial subtype, as opposed to the fibroblastic form. Analysis of 40 CpG sites distributed within 750 bp of the promoter region suggests that NF2 promoter methylation does not play a major role in meningioma development.