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Open Access Research article

Transcriptome profiling of pyrethroid resistant and susceptible mosquitoes in the malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis

Guoding Zhu123, Daibin Zhong3, Jun Cao2, Huayun Zhou2, Julin Li2, Yaobao Liu2, Liang Bai2, Sui Xu2, Mei-Hui Wang3, Guofa Zhou3, Xuelian Chang3, Qi Gao12* and Guiyun Yan3*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Parasitology, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, PR China

2 Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention (Ministry of Health), Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214064, PR China

3 Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA

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BMC Genomics 2014, 15:448  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-448

Published: 9 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and it is becoming increasingly resistant to the insecticides used for agriculture, net impregnation, and indoor residual spray. Very limited genomic information on this species is available, which has hindered the development of new tools for resistance surveillance and vector control. We used the 454 GS FLX system and generated expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of various life stages of An. sinensis, and we determined the transcriptional differences between deltamethrin resistant and susceptible mosquitoes.

Results

The 454 GS FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded a total of 624,559 reads (average length of 290 bp) with the pooled An. sinensis mosquitoes across various development stages. The de novo assembly generated 33,411 contigs with average length of 493 bp. A total of 8,057 ESTs were generated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation. A total of 2,131 ESTs were differentially expressed between deltamethrin resistant and susceptible mosquitoes collected from the same field site in Jiangsu, China. Among these differentially expressed ESTs, a total of 294 pathways were mapped to the KEGG database, with the predominant ESTs belonging to metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a total of 2,408 microsatellites and 15,496 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified.

Conclusions

The annotated EST and transcriptome databases provide a valuable genomic resource for further genetic studies of this important malaria vector species. The differentially expressed ESTs associated with insecticide resistance identified in this study lay an important foundation for further functional analysis. The identified microsatellite and SNP markers will provide useful tools for future population genetic and comparative genomic analyses of malaria vectors.

Keywords:
Transcriptome; Expressed sequence tag; Pyrethroid resistance; Gene expression; Anopheles sinensis