Open Access Research article

Genome sequence of Anopheles sinensis provides insight into genetics basis of mosquito competence for malaria parasites

Dan Zhou12, Donghui Zhang12, Guohui Ding3, Linna Shi12, Qing Hou12, Yuting Ye12, Yang Xu4, Huayun Zhou5, Chunrong Xiong5, Shengdi Li3, Jing Yu12, Shanchao Hong12, Xinyou Yu12, Ping Zou12, Chen Chen12, Xuelian Chang12, Weijie Wang12, Yuan Lv12, Yan Sun12, Lei Ma12, Bo Shen12* and Changliang Zhu12

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pathogen Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China

2 Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Modern Pathogen Biology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China

3 Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Shanghai 200031, P.R. China

4 Office of Research Administration, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China

5 Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214064, P.R. China

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BMC Genomics 2014, 15:42  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-42

Published: 18 January 2014



Anopheles sinensis is an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, which is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria throughout Asia, and particularly in China, Korea, and Japan.


We performed 454 next-generation sequencing and obtained a draft sequence of A. sinensis assembled into scaffolds spanning 220.8 million base pairs. Analysis of this genome sequence, we observed expansion and contraction of several immune-related gene families in anopheline relative to culicine mosquito species. These differences suggest that species-specific immune responses to Plasmodium invasion underpin the biological differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium infection that characterize these two mosquito subfamilies.


The A. sinensis genome produced in this study, provides an important resource for analyzing the genetic basis of susceptibility and resistance of mosquitoes to Plasmodium parasites research which will ultimately facilitate the design of urgently needed interventions against this debilitating mosquito-borne disease.

Genome; Anopheles sinensis; Malaria