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Open Access Research article

Large-scale phosphoproteome analysis in seedling leaves of Brachypodium distachyon L.

Dong-Wen Lv, Xin Li, Ming Zhang, Ai-Qin Gu, Shou-Min Zhen, Chang Wang, Xiao-Hui Li and Yue-Ming Yan*

Author Affiliations

College of Life Science, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China

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BMC Genomics 2014, 15:375  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-375

Published: 16 May 2014

Abstract

Background

Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications involved in the regulation of plant growth and development as well as diverse stress response. As a member of the Poaceae, Brachypodium distachyon L. is a new model plant for wheat and barley as well as several potential biofuel grasses such as switchgrass. Vegetative growth is vital for biomass accumulation of plants, but knowledge regarding the role of protein phosphorylation modification during vegetative growth, especially in biofuel plants, is far from comprehensive.

Results

In this study, we carried out the first large-scale phosphoproteome analysis of seedling leaves in Brachypodium accession Bd21 using TiO2 microcolumns combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MaxQuant software. A total of 1470 phosphorylation sites in 950 phosphoproteins were identified, and these phosphoproteins were implicated in various molecular functions and basic cellular processes by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses. Among the 950 phosphoproteins identified, 127 contained 3 to 8 phosphorylation sites. Conservation analysis showed that 93.4% of the 950 phosphoproteins had phosphorylation orthologs in other plant species. Motif-X analysis of the phosphorylation sites identified 13 significantly enriched phosphorylation motifs, of which 3 were novel phosphorylation motifs. Meanwhile, there were 91 phosphoproteins with both multiple phosphorylation sites and multiple phosphorylation motifs. In addition, we identified 58 phosphorylated transcription factors across 21 families and found out 6 significantly over-represented transcription factor families (C3H, Trihelix, CAMTA, TALE, MYB_related and CPP). Eighty-four protein kinases (PKs), 8 protein phosphatases (PPs) and 6 CESAs were recognized as phosphoproteins.

Conclusions

Through a large-scale bioinformatics analysis of the phosphorylation data in seedling leaves, a complicated PKs- and PPs- centered network related to rapid vegetative growth was deciphered in B. distachyon. We revealed a MAPK cascade network that might play the crucial roles during the phosphorylation signal transduction in leaf growth and development. The phosphoproteins and phosphosites identified from our study expanded our knowledge of protein phosphorylation modification in plants, especially in monocots.

Keywords:
Bd21; Leaf; Phosphoproteome; Transcription factors; Phosphorylation motif; Protein kinases