This article is part of the supplement: SNP-SIG 2012: Identification and annotation of SNPs in the context of structure, function, and disease
A protein domain-centric approach for the comparative analysis of human and yeast phenotypically relevant mutations
1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
2 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
BMC Genomics 2013, 14(Suppl 3):S5 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-S3-S5Published: 28 May 2013
The body of disease mutations with known phenotypic relevance continues to increase and is expected to do so even faster with the advent of new experimental techniques such as whole-genome sequencing coupled with disease association studies. However, genomic association studies are limited by the molecular complexity of the phenotype being studied and the population size needed to have adequate statistical power. One way to circumvent this problem, which is critical for the study of rare diseases, is to study the molecular patterns emerging from functional studies of existing disease mutations. Current gene-centric analyses to study mutations in coding regions are limited by their inability to account for the functional modularity of the protein. Previous studies of the functional patterns of known human disease mutations have shown a significant tendency to cluster at protein domain positions, namely position-based domain hotspots of disease mutations. However, the limited number of known disease mutations remains the main factor hindering the advancement of mutation studies at a functional level. In this paper, we address this problem by incorporating mutations known to be disruptive of phenotypes in other species. Focusing on two evolutionarily distant organisms, human and yeast, we describe the first inter-species analysis of mutations of phenotypic relevance at the protein domain level.
The results of this analysis reveal that phenotypic mutations from yeast cluster at specific positions on protein domains, a characteristic previously revealed to be displayed by human disease mutations. We found over one hundred domain hotspots in yeast with approximately 50% in the exact same domain position as known human disease mutations.
We describe an analysis using protein domains as a framework for transferring functional information by studying domain hotspots in human and yeast and relating phenotypic changes in yeast to diseases in human. This first-of-a-kind study of phenotypically relevant yeast mutations in relation to human disease mutations demonstrates the utility of a multi-species analysis for advancing the understanding of the relationship between genetic mutations and phenotypic changes at the organismal level.