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Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation

Ruixia Liu, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Lu Zhu, Chen Zheng, Shuang Han, Jing Gu, Jing Sun, Huiyun Li, Haibin Wang, Aiping Song and Fadi Chen*

Author Affiliations

College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

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BMC Genomics 2013, 14:919  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-919

Published: 26 December 2013



A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Jinba’ during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting.


The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum.


The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or negatively correlated to ARF, respectively. Several other proteins related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein degradation, photosynthetic and cell structure were also correlated to ARF. The induction of protein CmACO provide a strong case for ethylene as the immediate signal for ARF. This strongly suggests that the proteins we have identified will be valuable for further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling ARF.

Chrysanthemum; Anatomy; Adventitious root; Proteomics; Western blot