Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

Ahmad Yamin Abdul Rahman1, Abhilash O Usharraj1, Biswapriya B Misra1, Gincy P Thottathil1, Kandakumar Jayasekaran1, Yun Feng2, Shaobin Hou3, Su Yean Ong1, Fui Ling Ng1, Ling Sze Lee1, Hock Siew Tan1, Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd Sakaff1, Beng Soon Teh1, Bee Feong Khoo1, Siti Suriawati Badai1, Nurohaida Ab Aziz1, Anton Yuryev4, Bjarne Knudsen5, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte39, Nokuthula P Mchunu6, Qingyi Yu7, Brennick J Langston7, Tracey Allen K Freitas108, Aaron G Young3, Rui Chen2, Lei Wang2, Nazalan Najimudin1, Jennifer A Saito1* and Maqsudul Alam138*

Author Affiliations

1 Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

2 TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China

3 Advanced Studies in Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

4 Ariadne Genomics Inc., Rockville, Maryland, USA

5 CLC bio, Aarhus, Denmark

6 Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

7 AgriLife Research Center, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University System, Weslaco, Texas, USA

8 Department of Microbiology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

9 Current address: Centre of Excellence in Neuromics of Université de Montréal, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal Research Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada

10 Current address: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

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BMC Genomics 2013, 14:75  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-75

Published: 2 February 2013



Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876.


Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified.


The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Hevea brasiliensis; Euphorbiaceae; Natural rubber; Genome