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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

Masafumi Yagi1*, Toshiya Yamamoto2, Sachiko Isobe3, Hideki Hirakawa3, Satoshi Tabata3, Koji Tanase1, Hiroyasu Yamaguchi1 and Takashi Onozaki1

Author Affiliations

1 NARO Institute of Floricultural Science (NIFS), 2-1 Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8519, Japan

2 NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science (NIFTS), 2-1 Fujimoto, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan

3 Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan

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BMC Genomics 2013, 14:734  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-734

Published: 26 October 2013

Abstract

Background

Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research.

Results

We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data.

Conclusions

The improved genetic linkage maps and SSR markers developed in this study will serve as reference genetic linkage maps for members of the genus Dianthus, including carnation, and will be useful for mapping QTLs associated with various traits, and for improving carnation breeding programs.

Keywords:
Carnation; Dianthus caryophyllus L; EST; Linkage map; Next-generation sequencing technology (NGS); RAPD; STS; SSR