Phenomics analyses of S. arboricolus. (A) Reproductive lag, rate (population doubling time) and efficiency (change in population density) of S. arboricolus CBS 10644TT, AS 2.3317 and AS 2.3319 were extracted from high density growth curves in no stress conditions. The performance of the S. cerevisiae strain BY4741 is shown as reference. (B) Relative reproductive performance of S. arboricolus strains CBS 10644TT, AS 2.3317 and AS 2.3319 in a wide array of environments. The performance of each strain (n=2) was normalized to the S. cerevisiae reference strain BY4741 (n=20), or its auxotrophic mother S288C, providing a relative measure (log2 [BY4741/isolate]). Broken line shows average performance in basal (no stress) conditions. Strong phenotype deviations from S. cerevisiae are labeled with the respective condition. (C) Mitotic reproduction of S. arboricolus strains during conditions of elevated concentrations of Li+ (0.3 M) and Cu2+ (1 mM) or utilizing galactose and melibiose as sole carbon sources. S. cerevisiae S288C is included as a reference. (D) Average reproductive lag, rate and efficiency of S. arboricolus (CBS 10644TT, AS 2.3317 and AS 2.3319) plotted against the corresponding averages for S. bayanus (CBS1001, GL274 and GL388) and S. kudriavzevii (GL22, GL23, GL391 and GL392) . Red = lag, green = rate, blue = efficiency. Grey diagonals indicate 1:1 correlations, numbers indicate Pearson correlation coefficients. (E) Phenotypes distinguishing S. arboricolus from S. bayanus and S. kudriavzevii respectively. Significant phenotype differences were defined at α<0.2 (Students t-test, Bonferroni correction). Error bars = Standard Error of the Mean.
Liti et al. BMC Genomics 2013 14:69 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-69