Relative transcriptional expression levels of dsx1 and dsx2 genes in adult males compared with females. The males of D. magna (NIES strain), D. galeata, C. dubia and M. macrocopa were induced by JH analog exposure. D. magna (Belgium strain) and D. pulex males were induced by environmental cues (see Materials and methods). These genes showed higher expression levels in males using both JHs (black) and natural cues (grey) than in females (white). Y-axes indicate relative expression levels normalized by female expression levels. Bars indicate standard errors. Numbers indicate the biological replicates. Asterisks indicate significant differences (P < 0.05, based on Student’s t-test).
Toyota et al. BMC Genomics 2013 14:239 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-239