Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Genomics and BioMed Central.

Open Access Research article

Mitochondrial genomes of two Sinochlora species (Orthoptera): novel genome rearrangements and recognition sequence of replication origin

Chunxiang Liu1*, Jia Chang2, Chuan Ma3, Ling Li3 and Shanyi Zhou2

  • * Corresponding author: Chunxiang Liu

  • † Equal contributors

Author Affiliations

1 Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101, Beijing, China

2 College of Life Science, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi, China

3 Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Genomics 2013, 14:114  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-114

Published: 20 February 2013



Orthoptera, the largest polyneopteran insect order, contains 2 suborders and 235 subfamilies. Orthoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) follow the ancestral insect gene order, with the exception of a trnD-trnK rearrangement in Acridomorphs and rare tRNA inversions. A question still remains regarding whether a long thymine-nucleotide stretch (T-stretch) involved in the recognition of the replication origin exists in the control region (CR) of Orthoptera mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Herein, we completed the sequencing of whole mitogenomes of two congeners (Sinochlora longifissa and S. retrolateralis), which possess overlapping distribution areas. Additionally, we performed comparative mitogenomic analysis to depict evolutionary trends of Orthoptera mitogenomes.


Both Sinochlora mitogenomes possess 37 genes and one CR, a common gene orientation, normal structures of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes, rather low A+T bias, and significant C skew in the majority strand (J-strand), resembling all the other sequenced ensiferans. Both mitogenomes are characterized by (1) a large size resulting from multiple copies of an approximately 175 bp GC-rich tandem repeat within CR; (2) a novel gene order (rrnS-trnI-trnM-nad2-CR-trnQ-trnW), compared to the ancestral order (rrnS-CR-trnI-trnQ-trnM-nad2-trnW); and (3) redundant trnS(UCN) pseudogenes located between trnS(UCN) and nad1. Multiple independent duplication events followed by random and/or non-random loss occurred during Sinochlora mtDNA evolution. The Orthoptera mtDNA recognition sequence of the replication origin may be one of two kinds: a long T-stretch situated in or adjacent to a possible stem-loop structure or a variant of a long T-stretch located within a potential stem-loop structure.


The unique Sinochlora mitogenomes reveal that the mtDNA architecture within Orthoptera is more variable than previously thought, enriching our knowledge on mitogenomic genetic diversities. The novel genome rearrangements shed light on mtDNA evolutionary patterns. The two kinds of recognition sequences of replication origin suggest that the regulatory sequences involved in the replication initiation process of mtDNA have diverged through Orthoptera evolution.

Sinochlora longifissa; Sinochlora retrolateralis; Mitochondrial genome; Genome rearrangements; Recognition sequence