Phenotype and defense genes activation of barley leaves subjected to proteomic analyses. (A) Barley leaves images of the two NILs Bowman and Bowman-Rph15 inoculated with the leaf rust pathogen at the indicated time points and utilized for the proteomic analyses. After sampling, in some plants for each biological replicate the disease was left to proceed until 8 dpi to assess the success of the infection experiments. (B) The same genotypes and time points of inoculation as in (A) were verified for the transcriptional activation of the defense related genes coding for oxalate oxidase and callose synthase using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Normalization was carried out with the β-actin constitutively expressed gene. Values are expressed as log2 fold changes of transcript levels in the inoculated samples with respect to the transcript levels in un-inoculated barley leaves. Error bars represent SD across all RT-PCR replicates (three from each of two independent inoculations). Statistical significance of differential expression was evaluated with a Wilcoxon two group test (P<0.05, Methods).
Bernardo et al. BMC Genomics 2012 13:642 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-642