Figure 1.

Effects of immunostimulation on behavioral interactions. A) Workers are more aggressive towards bacteria-injected nestmates. Behavioral responses of worker bees to treated nestmates were assayed using a caged nestmate recognition assay with bees from Colony 1. Data represents the median ± SIQR aggression index. The number of replicates/treatment is 15 control, 13 saline-, 18 bead-, and 19 bacteria-injected individuals. There were significant differences in behavioural responses across the four treatment groups (H(3)=29.3; p<0.001). Significant differences in post-hoc pairwise comparisons (p<0.05) are denoted by different letters. B) Workers engage in more allo-grooming of bacteria-injected nestmates. There were significant differences in allo-grooming of bees in the four treatment groups (H (3, N= 65) =7.97 p =0.046). Significant differences in post-hoc pairwise comparisons (p<0.05) are denoted by different letters.

Richard et al. BMC Genomics 2012 13:558   doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-558
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