Additional file 6.

Figure S4. Pathogen protection mechanism during infection. Fungi have mechanisms to avoid induction of the host immunity systems and alleviate the defense responses. The fungal plant pathogen C. fulvum gene ECP6 encodes a small, secreted protein, which sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to prevent eliciting host defense responses. Pathogens have two methods of coping with the toxicity and antifungal compound secreted by the host. One is efflux by the ABC1-encoded protein. The other is to produce enzymes to degrade them: Gaeumannomyces graminis secrets saponin-degrading enzymes AVENACINASE to detoxify the triterpenoid oat root saponin avenacin A-1. As the pathogens can secret some substances that contribute to infection that are also harmful to the pathogen itself, pathogen should encode methods of mitigating self-harm. Fusarium sporotrichioides can produce the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) to inhibit protein synthesis of the host. The fungi have a gene called TRI101 that encodes trichothecene 3-O acetyltransferase, which can reduce the damage to pathogen caused by trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

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Zhu et al. BMC Genomics 2012 13:382   doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-382