Figure 3.

Manf mutants show severe defects in vesicular traffic in the cells with high secretion or endocytosis rate. A-C - In the epidermal cells of stage 17 ManfmzΔ96 mutant embryos compared to wild type (w), ER is rounded and swollen (open arrow), there are multiple vesicles stuck close to plasma membrane (thick arrow), and the cuticle (cu) is severely disorganized. Cuticular layers are indicated by a line. nu = nucleus D-E - High pressure freezing TEM images of 1st-2nd instar larvae show no difference in the layering of the cuticle between wild type and ManfΔ96 mutant. The cellular membranes are weakly stained by this technique. Notice the unattached first instar cuticle in ManfΔ96 mutant (cu' in E). F-G The comparison of wild type and ManfΔ96 mutant garland cells shows excessive accumulation and enlargement of α-vesicles (α) and dilated ER. The labyrinth channels and slit membranes are similar between wild type and ManfmzΔ96 mutant (white open arrows). H-I Secretory cells of gastric caeca in ManfmzΔ96 mutant show accumulation of vesicles full of debris (white arrow heads) never found in wild type. Scale bars: in A-E 500 nm, 1 μm in F and G, 2 μm in H and I.

Palgi et al. BMC Genomics 2012 13:134   doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-134
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