Open Access Research article

Transcriptional responses underlying the hormetic and detrimental effects of the plant secondary metabolite gossypol on the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa armigera

Maria de la Paz Celorio-Mancera12, Seung-Joon Ahn13, Heiko Vogel1 and David G Heckel1*

Author Affiliations

1 Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Department of Entomology, Beutenberg Campus, Hans-Knöll-Straβe 8, 07745, Jena, Germany

2 Department of Zoology Ecology, Stockholm University, Svante Arrheniusväg 18 B, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden

3 Horticultural and Herbal Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, 441-440, Korea

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BMC Genomics 2011, 12:575  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-575

Published: 23 November 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1. Best RefSeq homolog hits from Drosphila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori to H. armigera sequences.

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Additional file 2:

Figure S1. Effect of gossypol on larval developmental time to pupation. The Log (mg/L) gossypol was plotted against larval developmental time to pupation (days). Means that are not connected by the same letter are significantly different from each other as determined by post-hoc Duncan test (P < 0.05) (feeding treatments T5 = 0.016% and T7 = 0.16% gossypol in insect diet).

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Additional file 3:

Figure S2. Microarray design and hierarchical clustering of experimental conditions. A: Two-color double reference design followed for microarray hybridizations for each tissue. B: Hierarchical clustering determining the relationship between the samples belonging to the gossypol concentration experimental conditions per each tissue. Gut = G; rest of body = RB.

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Additional file 4:

Table S2. Cell-adhesion gene probes down-regulated upon 0.016% gossypol in the H. armigera rest of larval body. The Genbank accession number corresponds to the best Blast2go hit by the corresponding H. armigera EST represented by the probe in the microarray.

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Additional file 5:

Table S3. Genes differentially expressed across experimental conditions without Gene Ontology enrichment. List of genes found to be differentially expressed in H. armigera gut (G) and rest of body (RB) larval tissue to different gossypol concentrations in diet (T5 = 0.016%; T7 = 0.16%) relative to the control (CT = 0%) but with no Gene Ontology enrichment. Differential expression in response to gossypol identified using a Welch's t-test, B&H FDR P < 0.001.

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Additional file 6:

Table S4. KEGG pathway analysis on differentially regulated genes across gossypol dose-tissue experimental conditions. Based on homology, we inspected Drosophila melanogaster KEGG pathway enrichment in the H. armigera transcriptional data for each t-test comparison of gossypol dose (T5 or T7) relative to control (CT) per tissue. z-score statistics were applied in GeneSifter® to determine whether a pathway occurs more or less frequently than expected.

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Additional file 7:

Table S5. Peroxisome KEGG pathway gene probes up-regulated by 0.16% gossypol in the H. armigera larval body. KEGG pathway analysis was based on gene homology established by obtaining best BLAST hits for H. armigera ESTs to D. melanogaster genes. Differential expression is relative to control (gossypol-free diet).

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Additional file 8:

Table S6. Transcriptional responses of selected genes across experimental conditions. Normalized log-ratios across biological replicates for each treatment are compared to the control for a selection of genes found to be differentially expressed by the Rank Products method. Accession number, gene description and best hit homolog to D. melanogaster Refseq nucleotide and protein is included. The average of two probes per gene was used for its graphical display in Figures 4 and 5.

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Additional file 9:

Table S7_T5_G_RPlist_up. Rank Products list detecting differentially up-regulated genes in the G-T5 treatment. The most significantly up-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 10:

Table S8_T5_G_RPlist_down. Rank Products list detecting differentially down-regulated genes in the G-T5 treatment. The most significantly down-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 11:

Table S9_T5_RB_RPlist_up. Rank Products list detecting differentially up-regulated genes in the RB-T5 treatment. The most significantly up-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 12:

Table S10_T5_RB_RPlist_down. Rank Products list detecting differentially down-regulated genes in the RB-T5 treatment. The most significantly down-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 13:

Table S11_T7_G_RPlist_up. Rank Products list detecting differentially up-regulated genes in the G-T7 treatment. The most significantly up-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 14:

Table S12_T7_G_RPlist_down. Rank Products list detecting differentially down-regulated genes in the G-T7 treatment. The most significantly down-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 15:

Table S13_T7_RB_RPlist_up. Rank Products list detecting differentially up-regulated genes in the RB-T7 treatment. The most significantly up-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 16:

Table S14_T7_RB_RPlist_down. Rank Products list detecting differentially down-regulated genes in the RB-T7 treatment. The most significantly down-regulated genes are at the top of the list.

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Additional file 17:

Figure S3. CYP46AE14 and CYP46AE11 expression levels across gossypol treatments as measured by qRT-PCR.

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