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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Identification and developmental expression of the full complement of Cytochrome P450 genes in Zebrafish

Jared V Goldstone1, Andrew G McArthur2, Akira Kubota1, Juliano Zanette13, Thiago Parente14, Maria E Jönsson15, David R Nelson6 and John J Stegeman1*

Author Affiliations

1 Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA

2 Andrew McArthur Consulting, 11 Roanoke Road, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

3 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900, Brazil

4 Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

5 Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

6 Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, USA

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BMC Genomics 2010, 11:643  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-643

Published: 18 November 2010

Abstract

Background

Increasing use of zebrafish in drug discovery and mechanistic toxicology demands knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene regulation and function. CYP enzymes catalyze oxidative transformation leading to activation or inactivation of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, with consequences for normal physiology and disease processes. Many CYPs potentially have roles in developmental specification, and many chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities are substrates for CYPs. Here we identify and annotate the full suite of CYP genes in zebrafish, compare these to the human CYP gene complement, and determine the expression of CYP genes during normal development.

Results

Zebrafish have a total of 94 CYP genes, distributed among 18 gene families found also in mammals. There are 32 genes in CYP families 5 to 51, most of which are direct orthologs of human CYPs that are involved in endogenous functions including synthesis or inactivation of regulatory molecules. The high degree of sequence similarity suggests conservation of enzyme activities for these CYPs, confirmed in reports for some steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP19, aromatase; CYP11A, P450scc; CYP17, steroid 17a-hydroxylase), and the CYP26 retinoic acid hydroxylases. Complexity is much greater in gene families 1, 2, and 3, which include CYPs prominent in metabolism of drugs and pollutants, as well as of endogenous substrates. There are orthologous relationships for some CYP1 s and some CYP3 s between zebrafish and human. In contrast, zebrafish have 47 CYP2 genes, compared to 16 in human, with only two (CYP2R1 and CYP2U1) recognized as orthologous based on sequence. Analysis of shared synteny identified CYP2 gene clusters evolutionarily related to mammalian CYP2 s, as well as unique clusters.

Conclusions

Transcript profiling by microarray and quantitative PCR revealed that the majority of zebrafish CYP genes are expressed in embryos, with waves of expression of different sets of genes over the course of development. Transcripts of some CYP occur also in oocytes. The results provide a foundation for the use of zebrafish as a model in toxicological, pharmacological and chemical disease research.